What does Traumatology and Orthopedics studies?
Traumatology is a branch of medicine that studies injuries and diseases connected with them, develop methods for the treatment and prevention of injuries.
Orthopedics is the branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnostics, treatment of deformities and functional disorders of the locomotor apparatus (bones and muscles). They are caused by congenital defects or arise because of injury or disease.
Orthopedics is traditionally connected with Traumatology – a branch of medicine, that studies damages of the locomotor apparatus (bones, joints, muscles, ligaments, tendons). The prosthesis is a complex medical engineering discipline, that deals with the manufacture and use of prosthetic and orthotic devices (braces, bands, machines, special footwear, and insoles). It comprises Orthopedics and Traumatology. Prosthetic and orthotic devices are used for the restoration of lost forms and functions of the musculoskeletal system.
Orthopedics is an important part of Sports Medicine that studies changes in the body during training. Knowledge in the field of sports and physical culture is simply necessary for modern orthopedist. It is hard to imagine Orthopedics without a science called Medical Rehabilitation or Podiatry – а branch of medicine that studies structure and treatment of various feet diseases.
Soft tissue injuries
Soft tissue injuries are divided into 2 types: closed and open. Closed injuries, in particular, of soft tissue and bone, differ from open (wounds) because they are not accompanied by wounds and microbial contamination of tissues. Closed injuries include bruises, concussion, compression of soft tissues, aborticulation, broken bones, and damaged organs, etc.
Mar – closed mechanical soft tissues damage, that causes no harm to the skin (often occurs). The degree of injury depends on the size and circuit of the object that caused the injury, as well as form, the force of the blow and tissue resistance. Muscles can be easily injured in tension. The weakest, in this respect, is the subcutaneous tissues, which is full of blood vessels and nerves. Every injury is usually accompanied by tearing of the blood vessels, which causes interstitial hemorrhage.
Strain. The term “stretching” does not match its meaning, because all soft tissues have elastic properties and tensile strength, those are their normal functions (e.g. strain of ligament). Because of hyperextension, micro-tears in tissues appear. So, the gist of such injury is a strain still.
During strains often damage to the ligamentos apparatus of the joints appear. This is caused by a sudden curt movement in the joint (flexion with rotation of the fixed feet, excessive flexion or extension). The strain is typical for athletes in most sports. Ankle, knee, wrist joints most often can be affected.
In the case of a strain mechanism of damage is different, then with mar, but they have the similar clinical picture: local pain and mild bleeding with dysfunction of the limbs, excessive movement in the joints. Anamnesis (the elucidation of the mechanism of injury) together with additional methods of examination (ultrasound, MRI, etc.) will help to set a diagnosis.
Treatment of fractures
In the treatment of fractures, we should follow two principles: need to put together debris properly (if they exist) and fix them for the time of fusion.
For fixing of uncomplicated fractures solid (gypsum or plastic) bands is used. A term for the imposition of such bandages is immobilization of the joints above and below the fracture, which creates optimal conditions for healing but requires mandatory rehabilitation treatment after removal of fixation.
One of the modern trends in the world of Traumatology and Orthopedics is the application of methods of surgical fixation of fragments by various metal constructions. Often, this method does not involve the immobilization of the joints. So, the advantage is that it does not hinder the mobility of the affected limb. And it gives an opportunity for early and rapid recovery, reducing disability level and rapid social adaptation of the person injured.